Feasible Force Model
The most common measures of strength – manual muscle testing (MMT), handheld dynamometry (HHD), and isokinetic testing – are often measured at a single joint and tell us nothing more than the ability of an individual’s anatomy to exert force or torque on the external environment. It is often difficult to rely on certain clinical measures of strength due to subjectivity and poor intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, and even more difficult to translate these measures into an overall picture of an individual’s capacity to perform more complex activities inherent to daily life (e.g. ADLs) (Kelln et al, J Sport Rehab 2008, Whiteley R et al, J Sci Med Sport 2012)
A growing body of evidence has begun to look at how we define strength, proposing it may be more about defining “for what” vs. “how much” (Hasegawa et al, Clin Rehab 2008). Utilizing this recent research, we propose a paradigm shift in current methodology towards an integrative capacity model that has the potential to map clinical assessment of isolated muscle strengths onto the multi-joint torques and end-point forces required for task completion.
Effect of Verbal Cueing on Running Cadence and Efficiency
More than 15 million individuals participate in running for exercise in the United States, with a current proposed injury rate of 50-90% each year, largely due to an inability of the lower kinematic chain to absorb, distribute, and control load during initial contact and loading response of the running gait. Previous research has demonstrated that shorter and more frequent steps per minute are biomechanically beneficial to the runner (Davis et al, J Biomech 2006 and Schubert et al, Sports Health 2013).
While the body of literature surrounding cueing has considered mirror gait retraining, audio cues, visual retraining, and participant education there is limited research on the effects of self-cueing utilizing mental imagery and self-talk. Additionally, very few studies have looked beyond establishing an intra-session change with most limited to carry over effects at 1 week or shorter. Building upon this body of literature, we are looking at the combined effect of step rate manipulation and self-cueing using novel mental imaging and verbal cues.